The Japanese Journal of American Studies STYLE SHEET AND GUIDE FOR AUTHORS

I. Procedure for submitting manuscripts

first stage

  1. In order to facilitate the printing process,        manuscripts should be prepared using a personal computer.
  2. The paper should not exceed 7,000 words, including notes.       If graphs, maps, etc. are included,        then the number of words should be reduced proportionally        in order to accommodate these materials.       For details, please refer to section II.
  3. Once the manuscript has been reviewed by a native speaker of English        familiar with academic style,        3 copies of the completed paper should be sent to The JJAS Editorial Committee,       JAAS, c/o The University of Tokyo Center for Pacific and American Studies,       3-8-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8902.
  4. The editorial committee will meet to review the submitted manuscripts        and make its decisions, and authors will be informed of the results        before the end of June. Papers will be either (A) accepted as submitted,       (B) accepted contingent on revision, (C) not accepted.

second stage

  1. For papers in categories (A) and (B),       authors will be requested to submit an electronic file for editing.       For papers in category (B) the committee will decide        after reviewing the revisions made whether or not to accept the paper        for publication.  The editorial committee may make suggestions        for revision of accepted manuscripts,        and will then return them to each of the authors.       Authors are requested to take these suggestions into consideration       as they revise their manuscripts.       During this second stage, the editorial committee may continue to suggest       further revisions.

third stage

  1. Three copies of the final manuscript should be submitted        to the editorial committee: 2 hard copies and one on a floppy disk       (see note III below).


  1. Galleys will be sent to authors in March or early April.       Authors should notify the committee in advance       if they will be away from their usual mailing address at any time       during this period.       At this time, authors are also requested to submit a short English summary       (no more than a paragraph) of their paper,       for the editor-in-chief’s reference.       In principle, authors will proofread only the first galleys.       In order to communicate corrections and additions clearly to the printer,       authors should annotate their manuscripts by hand in red pencil or ink,       before returning the corrected galleys to the editorial committee.       There is no need to submit the revised version on floppy disk.

other matters

  1. Authors will receive 50 offprints and two copies of the Journal.
  2. Submitted materials will not be returned.
  3. Acknowledgments should be kept to a minimum.       The Journal’s policy is only to allow acknowledgements       that recognize specific assistance made in preparing the submitted manuscript,       for example, from libraries or institutions.       More general acknowledgments, for example of colleagues or editors       who read and commented on the manuscript or assisted the author more generally,       should not be included.
  4. Papers published in the Journal will be simultaneously published        in electronic form on the Journal’s website.       Any author who does not wish their paper to be included        in the electronic form of the journal should notify the committee in advance.

II. Manuscript style

  1. Manuscripts should be typed double-spaced on A4 paper       (approximately 65 characters/spaces to a line, 25 lines to a page).       The total length should be approximately 35 pages, including notes.       Manuscripts should not exceed 7,000 words, including notes,       less if necessary to accommodate graphs, maps, and illustrations       within an equivalent number of pages.
  2. In principle, authors should refer to        The Chicago Manual of Style , 14th ed.       (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993) for style guidance.       Kate Turabian’s        A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses,       and Dissertations , 6th ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996)       is a useful abbreviation.  In some cases the following reference works       may also be used:        MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers ,       6th ed. (New York: Modern Language Association of America, 2003),        Publication Manual of the        American Psychological Association , 3rd ed.       (Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association, 1984).       In all cases, authors should use a uniform style throughout the manuscript.
  3. Please refer to the back issues for basic style.
  4. Notes should be presented as endnotes, following the main body of the text,       and typed double-spaced       (approximately 65 characters/spaces to a line, 25 lines to a page).
  5. The author’s name should be given below the title,       in the order of given name and then family name.       The official English language name of the author’s affiliation       (university, research institute, etc.) should also be given.
  6. In order to make the papers easier to read,       it is desirable that each manuscript be divided into several sections,       with roman numerals or headings (or a combination thereof)       at the beginning of each section.       The first section and last section may be given topic headings,       or headed as “introduction” and “conclusion,”       and/or they may be given roman numerals.       Headings should not be centered.
  7. Graphs, maps, photographs, etc. should be glued individually       on to separate sheets of A4 paper, without page numbers.       Captions should be written concisely beneath each figure.       The location of final insertion in the manuscript (page and line)       should be noted clearly on both the separate page and in the text itself.

III. The final manuscript

  1. The final manuscript, with all necessary additions and corrections,       should be submitted to the editorial committee in the form of one floppy disk       (text file) and 2 hard copies.       Authors should make sure that they have kept a back-up disk       containing their manuscript.       On the submitted floppy disk, please note the name of both the hardware       and the software program used.
  2. Block quotations should not be indented or single-spaced,       but should be indicated in the margin of the manuscript.
  3. The first line of each note should not be indented,       and the note number should be given in the same font size as the text of the note.       One space should be inserted between the number and the beginning of the note.       Notes should be double-spaced.
  4. For further guidance on any editorial issues,       please write to the editorial committee.

Citation Samples

A. Books

1. with a single author

William H. Chafe,  The Unfinished Journey: America Since World War II , 3d ed. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995), 146-48.

2. with an editor/editors

(1) where no author’s name appears on the title page
Walter Lippmann and Allan Nevins, eds., A Modern Reader: Essays on Present-day Life and Culture (Boston: Heath, 1936), 76.
(2) the edited work of one author (unless the editor/translator is more important to the discussion than the original author)
John Stuart Mill, Autobiography and Literary Essays , ed. John M. Robson and Jack Stillinger (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1980), 15.

3. a work in a series

Luli Callinicos, Workers on the Rand: Factories, Townships, and Popular Culture, 1886-1942 , A People’s History of South Africa, vol. 2 (Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Press, 1985), 48.

4. a translation

Murasaki Shikibu, The Tale of Genji , trans. Edward G. Seidensticker (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978), 46.

5. a work in a language other than English

Yoshiko Yoshida, Amerika to Nippon no taiwa [The Dialogue between the United States and Japan] (Tokyo: Shunju-sha, 1995), 189-200.

When romanizing Japanese language titles, capitalize the first word and proper nouns. The accompanying English translation should be capitalized according to note G below. Underlining is not necessary except in cases  where the English translation of the Japanese title has been indicated by the author.

6. when it is important to indicate the year of original publication

(1) reprint editions
Gunnar Myrdal, Population: A Problem for Democracy (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1940; repr. Gloucester, Mass.: Peter Smith, 1956), 9.
(2) the first paperback edition of an original hardback
(i) by a different publisher
Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, Frankenstein: Or, The Modern Prometheus (the 1818 text) , ed. James Reiger (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1974; Chicago: University of Chicago Press, Phoenix Books, 1982), 37.
(ii) by a publisher within the same group
Leon F. Litwack, North of Slavery: The Negro in the Free States, 1790-1860 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1961; Phoenix Books, 1965), 65.

B. Articles

1. in a book

Jack Goody and Ian Watt,  “The Consequences of Literacy,” in Literacy in Traditional Societies , ed. Jack Goody (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1968), 34.

2. in a professional journal

(1) general
Patricia A. Cooper,  “What Ever Happened to Adolph Strasser?” Labor History 20 (Summer 1979): 17-30.
(2) where the journal is paginated by issue
Lisa Steinman, “Moore, Emerson, and Kreymborg,” Marianne Moore Newsletter 4, no. 1 (1980): 9.
(3) where the journal is paginated by volume
Konrad Lorenz, “The Wisdom of Darwin,” Midway , no. 22 (1965): 43.

3. in a popular magazine

(1) signed articles
Anne B. Fisher, “Ford Is Back on the Track,” Fortune , 23 December 1985, 18.
(2) unsigned articles
“Ethiopia’s No-Win War”, Newsweek , 24 April 1989, 19.

C. Other sources

1. newspapers

Michael Norman,  “The Once-Simple Folk Tale Analyzed by Academe,” New York Times , 5 March 1984.

2. encyclopedias

Encyclopedia Americana , 1963 ed., s.v. “Sitting Bull.”
Columbia Encyclopedia , 1990 ed., s.v. “Tocqueville, Alexis de.”

3. unpublished dissertations

Sandra Landis Gogel,  “A Grammar of Old Hebrew” (Ph.D. diss., University of Chicago, 1985), 46-50.

4. government publications

U.S. Congress, House Committee on Education and Labor, White House Conference on Aging: Report to Accompany S.J. Res. 117 , 90th Cong., 2d sess., 1 May 1968, 5.

D. Indirect citations

Glenway Wescott, Images of Truth: Remembrances and Criticism (New York: Harper, 1962), 128, quoted in William L. Nance, Katherine Anne Porter and the Art of Rejection (Chapel Hill, N.C.: University of North Carolina Press, 1964), 207-9.

E. Repeated citations

  1. Use “ibid.” (not underlined) when referring again to the single work cited in the immediately preceding note. Except at the head of a sentence, “ibid.” should not be capitalized.

    See ibid., 52-58.

  2. Use short title forms when referring again to a previous citation not in the immediately preceding note. Include the author, title (abbreviated if necessary), and page number.

    Chafe, The Unfinished Journey , 150.

F. Multiple-item notes

When citing more than one source in a single note, connect the items with semi-colons, and insert “and” before the final item.

Chafe, The Unfinished Journey, 180-81; Cooper,  “What Ever Happened,” 24; and Lorenz, “The Wisdom of Darwin,” 46.

G. Capitalization in English language sources

  1. Capitalize the first letter of each word, but (with the exception of the first and last words) use lower case for articles, prepositions, the word “to” used as part of an infinitive, and coordinate conjunctions (and, but, or, nor, for).

    Economic Effects of War upon Women and Children “What It Is All About”
  2. The capitalization of the original title should be retained in principle, but for the sake of uniformity the capitalization described above may be used.

  3. With regard to Japanese language materials, see A.5. above.

H. Omission of the definite article in titles of magazines, journals,  and encyclopedias

(The) New York Times, (The) Chronicle of Higher Education

I. Place of publication

  1. When an American location is not well known, include the state name. Abbreviate as follows:

    Ala. Alaska Ariz. Ark. Calif. Colo. Conn. Del. D.C. Fla. Ga. Hawaii Idaho Ill. Ind. Iowa Kans. Ky. La. Maine Md. Mass. Mich. Minn. Miss. Mo. Mont. Nev. N.H. N.J. N.Mex. N.Y. N.C. N.Dak. Ohio Okla. Oreg. Pa. R.I. S.C. S.Dak. Tenn. Tex. Utah Vt. Va. Wash. W.Va. Wis. Wyo.  

    In the case of Cambridge (for example), if the publisher is other than Cambridge University Press, Harvard University Press, or MIT Press, indicate “Cambridge, England” or “Cambridge, Mass.”

  2. The US capital, Washington D.C., should be referred to as “Washington, D.C.” except in the case of publications from bodies such as the US Congress, in which case there is no need to indicate place of publication.  See C.4. above.

  3. When a title page indicates more than one place of publication, in principle only the first should be given.

J. Publisher

  1. Omit the first “The” and also “Inc.” or “Ltd.”

    (The) University of Chicago Press, Alfred A. Knopf (Inc.)
  2. Simplify “and” to “&,” and “Company” to “Co.”

K. Numerals

  1. Page numbers: 46-48, 135-37, 204-6, 281-302
  2. Volume numbers: use arabic numerals — “vol. 4” (not “vol. IV”)
  3. Ordinal numbers: 2d, 3d (not 2nd, 3rd).